The amount of compensation you may receive will depend on how severe your injuries are and how they may affect other aspects of your life. You can also claim for any out of pocket expenses you may have.
With almost 300 years in combined legal experience, we are experts in settling compensation claims for whiplash injuries.
Why Choose Bott and Co?
- Almost 300 Years Of Combined Legal Experience
- 100% Independent - We Act For Your Best Interests
- Reduced Success Fees On Special Damages
- Support For Immediate Physio & Replacement Vehicle
We’ve put together a simple, easy to read guide below, to help you understand what you may be entitled to claim for if you’ve suffered a whiplash injury.
Whiplash is an injury to the neck, caused by a sudden movement of the head, either backwards and forwards or sideways. The rapid movement causes the soft tissue in the neck to become stretched and damaged.
Whiplash symptoms can vary from person to person, depending on the circumstances in which the injury occurred.
Most common whiplash symptoms include pain, tenderness or stiffness in the neck, coupled with muscle spasms and difficulty in moving your head. It is also common to have headaches and pain in your shoulders and arms.
These symptoms can come on very quickly following a car accident, or they may take a few days to develop. It is quite common for the pain to feel worse the day after the accident.
What Should I Do If I Think I Have Whiplash?
If your pain is not manageable after taking painkillers, we suggest that you visit your GP or A&E to have a medical professional examine you. Apart from helping you with your pain, they will also document your injuries. These documents can be used as part of your claim.
Most whiplash injuries where there is mild discomfort or headaches, can last just a few days or weeks. These cases can settle on average for between £1,000 to £2,750 while severe whiplash with on-going symptoms and damage to the spine can entitle you to as much as £97,500.
Compensation settlements for whiplash will differ on a case by case basis, and the above figures are intended only as a guide.
A free claim consultation with one of our team is the quickest way to know how much you may be able to claim for your specific injuries. Most consultations take no more than 5 to 10 minutes.
The total amount of compensation is calculated by combining the compensation you may receive for both General and Special Damages.
Compensation for General Damages relates to the severity of your injuries and the care you may require while you recover.
Compensation for Special Damages reimburses you for all of the out of pocket expenses you may have incurred due to your accident.
The amount of General Damages is calculated from the Judicial Board Guidelines for the Assessment of General Damages in Personal Injury Cases; which lists compensation amounts for particular levels of injury.
The amount will depend on how serious your injuries are, and how long it will take you to make a full recovery.
Our interactive calculator below will help you find out how much compensation you may be able to claim for your injury.
The amounts listed below are based on average settlement figures awarded by Judges at Trial. The figures are accurate as of January 2020.
Calculate how much you could claim
Injuries may include
Please be aware that compensation amounts vary on a case by case basis. These figures are intended only as a guide towards what your claim may be worth.
As part of claiming with Bott and Co, you will undergo an independent medical assessment. It is following this assessment, that we will know an accurate amount of compensation we may be able to claim for you.
A comprehensive list of compensation amounts for General Damages is available at the bottom of this page.
How Is Compensation Calculated If I Have Multiple Injuries?
In these instances, compensation amounts are calculated slightly differently.
The compensation amount for the most severe injury may be considered first, with a reduced amount applied for the lesser injuries.
The amount of compensation for special damages is awarded to cover any out of pocket expenses you may have incurred, or will incur in the future.
These expenses can be as broad as recovery for damage to your vehicle and possessions, all medical costs such as rehabilitation and physiotherapy, and any loss of earnings.
Special Damages You May Be Able to Claim For
- Damage to your vehicle
- Damage to your possessions
- Insurance Excess
- Prescription costs
- Medical care, including Physio & Rehab
- Prescription costs
- Travel expenses. (including travel to appointments and parking)
- Loss of earnings, future and past that are directly concerned with the incident and injury.
- Any loss of job opportunities, promotions, bonuses or pensions.
- Costs relating to the adaptation of your home, if required.
- Any household assistance or care you may require.
We strongly recommend you speak with a solicitor before discussing any offer of compensation from an insurance company.
In many cases, the amount of compensation they may offer will be a fraction of the amount you may legally be entitled to claim.
We strongly recommend you speak with a solicitor before discussing any offer of compensation from an insurance company.
Some insurance companies may try to tempt you into settling quickly with initial offers. While these offers may be appealing, usually they are considerably lower than the amount you may be entitled.
What Do I Do If My Insurance Company Has Already Instructed A Law Firm For Me?
Sometimes insurance companies have relationships with law firms and may pass on your details.
You are under no legal obligation to accept any legal representation set up for you. It is entirely up to you who you decide to represent you.
No Win No Fee is also known as a Conditional Fee Agreement (CFA), and this means we agree to work for you on the basis that we won’t charge any fees if in the rare instance the claim is not successful.
To put it simply, if we don’t win your case, you don’t have to pay a penny.
Following a change in the law in 2013, most solicitors deduct a fee of up to 25% of your total compensation to cover the costs of their legal services.
How Our Fees Are Very Different From Other Solicitors
However, unlike many solicitors, Bott and Co do not make any deductions from some of the out of pocket expenses we recover for you.
As these amounts can be quite high, this can make the overall amount of compensation you receive from us considerably higher than what you may receive with another firm.
We will not deduct our fees from any of the following Special Damages we may be able to claim on your behalf.
- Medical care.
- Past loss of earnings
- Home adaptations.
- Vehicle damage
Speak with our team to discuss your claim in more detail.
As part of the Civil Liabilities Act, the UK Government intends to introduce several changes to how whiplash injury claims are processed.
These changes have been delayed, but may come into practice by April 2020.
The changes may have a direct effect on the amount of compensation, and quality of legal support you may be able to receive.
Under the new system, reduced, fixed compensation amounts ranging from £225 to £3,725 depending on your injuries may be introduced.
Additionally, the small claims limit may be raised from £1,000 to £5,000, making it much harder for you to find a solicitor to take on your case.
Why Choose Bott & Co For Your Claim?
We’ve built a reputation over the last two decades as one of the most respected law firms in the UK.
Bott and Co have always been, and will always be, independent of any insurance company, ensuring you’ll not only receive completely independent advice about your claim, but you’ll receive the maximum amount of compensation you’re legally entitled.
As a member of The Law Society, and The Solicitors Regulation Authority, we are bound by strict regulation, unlike claims management companies, and you benefit from full solicitor-client confidentiality.
We don’t pass your details on to any other company, and our only concern is to make sure you receive the best offer from the other side.
The support we offer our clients stretches far beyond our award-winning legal services. Our tailor-made claim process ensures we’re always there for you when you need us most.
No Win No Fee
Our legal services are offered on a no win no fee basis, meaning there is no financial risk to you when claiming.
Unlike most firms, we don’t deduct fees for certain types of out of pocket expenses we’ll claim for on your behalf. This means you may receive significantly more when claiming with us than with another firm.
We can provide instant access to private physiotherapy and rehabilitation that will form part of your claim with the costs recovered from the opponent.
Appointments can be set up immediately, which means you could start receiving treatment for your injuries within days. We offer physiotherapy from specialist rehabilitation companies with locations throughout the UK.
You won’t need to worry about your car, either. Our nationwide network of replacement car providers will make sure you have an appropriate rental car while yours is repaired.
Monitor Your Claim With Our App.
Our specially designed app will give you 24/7 access to updates and progress on your claim.
How To Start A Claim With Bott and Co?
The first step is to speak to our team to discover if you have a claim.
Our multi-lingual team of specialist whiplash injury legal advisors can let you know if you would be able to claim during your first call. It will take no longer than 5 to 10 minutes.
Once you decide you’d like Bott and Co to represent you, and you have agreed to our No Win No Fee agreement, you’ll be assigned to a specialist member of our whiplash claims team.
What Is The Claim Process?
The majority of claims can be broken up into three distinct stages.
Your solicitor will begin to compile your case by asking you to provide all of the relevant details of the accident to discover who was responsible for your injuries.
An independent medical assessment will take place to document the level of injuries you’ve suffered. This will enable us to claim the correct level of compensation as set out in the Judicial Board Guidelines.
After assessing your case, including the amount of compensation you may be due, our solicitors will present the claim to the third party and negotiate a settlement.
Using your evidence and medical reports, our solicitors will build the best possible case for compensation to present to the third party’s insurance company. We will use all our experience and industry knowledge to negotiate the maximum settlement for you.
As your claim progresses through each stage, you’ll have a specific point of contact to guide you through the process. They will keep you updated on your case and answer any questions you may have throughout the process.
How Long Do I Have To Make A Whiplash Claim?
You have up to three years since the date of the accident to make a claim. The only exception is if you’re claiming on behalf of a child. Children have up to three years from the date they turn 18 to claim.
How Long Should A Whiplash Claim Take?
On average, most whiplash claims should be settled in less than six months. However, this timeframe should only be used as an approximation as each claim is different.
Every whiplash claim is unique, as is the claim process that follows. The length of time it takes for your claim to complete will depend on its complexity. Your solicitor will be able to let you know how long they expect your case to take.
Can I Claim Whiplash If I Was A Passenger?
Yes, you may be able to claim for whiplash if you were a passenger. You could claim if you were a passenger in a car, or on private transport such as a taxi, or public transport such as a bus.
Drivers in such circumstances have a duty of care to ensure the safety of all of its passengers.
Can I Claim Whiplash If I Was Hit By An Uninsured Driver?
Yes, you can claim if an uninsured driver has hit you, or if the driver has broken the conditions of their insurance policy. These claims are settled with the Motor Insurance Bureau, an independent body set up to compensate victims of uninsured or untraced accidents.
Can I Claim Whiplash If I Was Involved In A “Hit and Run?”
Yes, you will likely be able to claim if you’ve been involved in an accident when the driver at fault has left the scene. The Motor Insurance Bureau handles these claims.
Can You Claim For Whiplash If The Accident Was Your Fault?
If you are partly responsible for the accident, you may be able to claim under what is called a split liability agreement. This would mean if you were 50% responsible for the accident, you would receive 50% less compensation.
We recommend you speak with our team to discuss your case. It may be that you were not at fault or partly at fault. In all instances, you still may be able to claim.
Even if you think you may be at fault, that may not be the case legally. Contact our team to discuss your case.
Can I Claim Whiplash Without Seeing A Doctor?
You can start your claim with us without having seen a GP or visited a hospital, but we will arrange a medical appointment on your behalf to present the medical evidence to the other side.
Who Do I Claim Compensation From?
In most cases, the insurance company of the driver who was responsible for the accident will be legally obliged to pay the amount of compensation you may receive.
We strongly advise you speak with a solicitor who is independent of any insurance company before accepting any offer to ensure the amount you are offered is comparable to the amount you’re legally entitled.
Should I Claim For Whiplash?
We all pay our car insurance to cover the times that we need financial help for injuries and other out of pocket costs incurred as a result of an accident on the road. You shouldn’t feel bad or awkward about claiming what the law says is rightfully yours, despite what insurers and the media want you to believe.
If you think you have whiplash or related injuries after being in a car accident, even if your symptoms are mild, the law says you are entitled to financial compensation because of the pain and suffering you have experienced.
Do Whiplash Claims Go To Court?
In our experience, less than 1% of claims go to court. It’s only when both parties cannot agree to settle a claim when a case may end up going to court.
If I Talk With You About My Claim, Am I Under Any Obligation To Claim With You?
Not at all, you can speak with us with no obligation to pursue a claim.
|Part of Body||Level of Injury||Compensation Amount||Injuries May Include|
|Head Injury||Severe||£247,280 – £354,260||Badly disabled, brain damage with little or no response. Includes people in a vegetative state in need of full time nursing. At the lower end, cases resulting in minimally conscious state with life expectancy of less than 15 years.|
|Head Injury||Serious||£192,090 – £247,280||Serious physical symptoms or a significant change to your intellect or personality. It could cause substantial dependence on others, paralysis and reduced life expectancy.|
|Head Injury||Moderate||£13,430 – £192,090||Symptoms can range from minor personality change, depression, poor concentration, and a small risk of epilepsy. At the top end of the bracket, symptoms could result in permanent vegetative state, high risk of epilepsy and some intellectual deficit.|
|Head Injury||Minor||£1,940 – £11,200||In these cases, if there has been any brain damage, there is likely to have been a recovery within a few weeks. Awards can be influenced by the presence or absence of headaches.|
|Eye Injury||Severe||£56,070 – £354,260||Injuries leading to complete blindness, or blinded in one eye and/ or severely reduced vision in other.|
|Eye Injury||Serious||£7,990 – £57,590||Injuries leading to the loss of an eye, lost sight in one eye or suffering some but not total visual impairment.|
|Eye Injury||Minor||£1,930 – £7,650||Minor injuries, such as being struck in the eye, explosion to fumes, or being splashed by liquids. In the majority of cases, recovery is within a few weeks.|
|Ear Injury||Severe||£79,560 – £123,310||Injury leading to complete deafness. If injured as child, higher compensation may apply is there is a loss of speech.|
|Ear Injury||Serious||£27,450 – £39,940||Loss of total hearing in one ear, amounts dependent on additional symptoms such as dizziness and tinnitus.|
|Ear Injury||Moderate||£11,040 – £26,040||Compensation amount apply for those suffering from partial hearing loss to mild or severe tinnitus.|
|Ear Injury||Minor||Up to £6,140||Very slight or occasional tinnitus, possible NIHL (Noise Induced Hearing Loss).|
|Facial Injury||Severe||£26,120 – £85,340||Facial disfigurement, very serious multiple fractures to the jaw, (resulting in eating restrictions and risk of arthritis in the joints) chronic tooth pain, or scarring, amounts depending on how seriously affected. Men could receive less for facial disfigurement than women with same injury. Typically teens to early 30s, those psychologically damaged receive higher awards.|
|Facial Injury||Serious||£15,750 – £42,460||Facial fractures such as broken jaw or nose. Amounts dependent on severity. Also apply to broken, damaged or lost teeth.|
|Facial Injury||Minor||£1,500 – £7,650||Facial injury that didn’t include broken bones and left only very light or no scarring. Cases may include loss or damage to two front teeth or less, simple fractures of the jaw and nose with full recovery.|
|Neck Injury||Severe||£39,870 – £130,060||Neck injuries involving serious fractures, damage to discs and partial paraplegia. Cases also include severe soft tissue damage, leading to chronic pain conditions and significant disability of a permanent nature.|
|Neck Injury||Moderate||£6,920 – £33,750||Injuries such as fractures or dislocations which may result in spinal fusion. Cases may include disc lesion, cervical spondylosis, serious limitation of movement, permanent recurring pain. Also injuries which have accelerated a pre-existing condition.|
|Neck Injury||Minor||£2,150 – £6,920||Soft tissue or whiplash injury but with recovery within three months to two years of incident. Amounts vary on severity of injury, level of pain and effect on restriction of ability to take part in your usual activities.|
|Back Injury||Severe||£34,000 – £141,150||Back injury usually requiring surgery such as damaged spinal cord leading to partial paralysis, loss of bowel/bladder function and psychological issues. Cases may include nerve root damage, disc lesions, fractures, impaired agility, personality change and arthritis.|
|Back Injury||Moderate||£10,970 – £34,000||Compression or crushed fracture of the lumbar spine causing a large risk of osteoarthritis and constant pain. May include spinal fusion, prolapsed disc requiring surgery and prolonged acceleration or exacerbation of a pre-existing back condition.|
|Back Injury||Minor||£2,150 – £10,970||Soft tissue injuries, including less serious strains and sprains and disc prolapses. Full recovery takes place between 3 months and 5 years.|
|Shoulder Injury||Severe||£16,830 – £42,110||Injuries associated with damages to the neck and the brachial plexus resulting in significant disability.|
|Shoulder Injury||Serious||£4,520 – £16,830||Serious injuries may include fractures to the humerus, fractures to the clavicle and rotator cuff tears leading to surgery.|
|Shoulder Injury||Minor||£2,150 – £6,920||Suffered pain from a soft tissue injury lasting 3 months to less than 2 years, but have eventually had a full recovery.|
|Injury To Pelvis and Hips||Severe||£34,340 – £114,810||Severe hip or pelvis fractures that have led to bowel damage or have required a spinal fusion. Amounts depend on long-term effects (e.g. child-birth complications) and likelihood of more surgery. Injuries include minor fractures resulting in hip replacement.|
|Injury To Pelvis and Hips||Moderate||£11,040 – £34,340||Injury that required a hip operation / replacement (or may lead to you requiring one in the future), but are unlikely to suffer from any serious disability as a result.|
|Injury To Pelvis and Hips||Minor||£3,460 – £11,040||Minor soft tissue injuries with complete recovery, where there is little or nor residual disability within 2 years.|
|Arm Injury||Severe||£114,810 – £263,060||Amputation of one or both arms. Amount awarded depends on where amputation is, age and the effect the operation has on life and whether there are phantom pains.|
|Arm Injury||Serious||£34,340 – £114,810||Arm injury not resulting in amputation, but has a serious effect on ability to use arm(s) resulting in disability.|
|Arm Injury||Moderate||£16,830 – £34,340||If there is a degree of disability for a period of time (such as a broken arm) but are expected to make a complete (or almost complete) recovery.|
|Arm Injury||Mild||£5,810 – £16,830||Simple fractures of the forearm. Awards at the top end of the scale will include longer than usual recovery periods and other extenuating factors.|
|Elbow Injury||Severe||£34,340-||Amounts could apply if injury has required surgery or resulted in severe disability.|
|Elbow Injury||Serious||£13,720 –||Elbow injuries that did not require surgery or lead to a disability, but has resulted in restricted movement.|
|Elbow Injury||Moderate||Up to £11,040||The majority of elbow injuries fall under this category. These amounts apply to injuries like tennis elbow, deep cuts or simple fractures that don’t lead to permanent damage.|
|Hand Injury||Severe||£25,430 – £176,660||When a person has had one/both hands amputated, or had their hand rendered almost useless by amputation of more than one finger. Also cases where several fingers have been amputated but re-joined, leaving it clawed, clumsy and unsightly.|
|Hand Injury||Moderate||£3,810 – £25,430||Injuries like deep cuts and soft tissue damage that have resulted in impaired function of the hand that may require surgery. At the bottom end of the scale, this will cover crush injuries, penetrating wounds and any permanent but non-intrusive symptoms.|
|Hand Injury||Minor||£800 – £3,810||Soft tissue injuries with a recovery time of 6 months or less. Less serious injuries include crush injuries and laceration.|
|Wrist Injury||Severe||£21,480 – £52,490||Wrist injuries resulting in complete loss of function and significant permanent disability.|
|Wrist Injury||Serious||£11,040 – £21,480||Injuries include broken wrist or soft tissue damage, resulting in some permanent disability.|
|Wrist Injury||Moderate||£3,090 – £8,970||Injuries including minor undisplaced fractures and an uncomplicated Colles fracture requiring the use of plasters, but recovery expected between 12 months and 2 years.|
|Finger Injury||Severe||£7,990 – £32,210||One or more finger completely amputated. Amount depends on which finger(s) had to be removed and the level of disability the person suffers as a result. This includes total and partial loss of index finger and fractures of the index finger.|
|Finger Injury||Moderate||£3,460 – £14,330||At the top end of the scale, amputation or loss part of the little finger. On the lower end, If you have suffered from a broken finger but have had a complete (or almost complete) recovery.|
|Finger Injury||Minor||Up to £4,160||Injuries such as fractured fingers that have healed fully within 12 months. At the bottom end of the scale, there will be minor scarring.|
|Thumb Injury||Severe||£11,040 – £48,080||Injuries include having part or all of your thumb amputated, suffering nerve damage, fractures, or losing your ability to grip properly. May also involve the insertion of wire.|
|Thumb Injury||Moderate||£3,460 – £11,040||Injuries including fractures, recovering within six months and at the higher end of the scale, damage to tendons or nerves, causing impairment of sensation. At the higher end of the scale, cosmetic deformity of the thumb.|
|Thumb Injury||Minor||Up to £1,930||These injuries may have caused severe pain for a short time, but will have resolved completely within 3 months.|
|Leg Injury||Severe||£48,080 – £247,280||Injuries would usually include either a single or double amputation (the higher awards reserved for above the knee amputations), extensive degloving including bone grafting, and in most cases a permanent future mobility restriction.|
|Leg Injury||Moderate||£15,750 – £48,080||Injuries including a broken leg, multiple fractures or crushing injuries, generally to one leg. Compound fractures or ligament injuries resorting in instability with a near-certainty of arthritis . Minor fractures with an incomplete recovery or serious soft tissue injury.|
|Leg Injury||Minor||Up to £12,350||Injuries that resolve within a few months, including soft tissue injuries, cuts, bruising, contusions. At the top end of the scale, simple fractures of femur, tibia and fibula.|
|Knee Injury||Severe||£22,960 – £84,360||Joint injury that has resulted in serious disability, constant pain or muscle wastage. Compensation amounts would depend on whether you are likely to need surgery in the future and the effects your injury will have on your life.|
|Knee Injury||Moderate||£13,010 – £22,960||Serious damage to the kneecap, ligaments or muscles, resulting in some disability with continued pain and discomfort. Also included are injuries involving dislocation, torn meniscus or acceleration type injuries over a prolonged period of years.|
|Knee Injury||Minor||Up to £12,050||Injuries involving twisting, lacerations or bruising, where there is continuous aching or discomfort. At the bottom end of the scale, soft tissue injuries resolving in a few months.|
|Ankle Injury||Severe||£43,900 – £61,110||Severe ankle injury leading to serious deformity, disability or even the possibility of amputation in the long-term.|
|Ankle Injury||Moderate||£12,050 – £43,900||Ankle injury requiring operation/plaster. Amount depends on if injury affects ability to work and if you need special footwear. Fractures, ligamentous tears, which lead to less serious disabilities when walking/standing, risk of future osteoarthritis.|
|Ankle Injury||Minor||Up to £12,050||Minor or undisplaced fractures, sprains and ligamentous injuries where there is an element of scarring. At the bottom end of the scale, injuries where recovery is complete without scarring and within a year.|
|Achilles Injury||Severe||£21,910 –||Muscles have been severed and this has led to restricted ankle movement. Injuries include a limp and residual scarring, and where further improvement is unlikely.|
|Achilles Injury||Moderate||£11,040 –||Cases involving partial rupture or significant injury to the tendon. At the top end of the scale, injuries involving disability and permanent scarring.|
|Achilles Injury||Minor||£6,800 – £11,040||Tendon damage to the ankle, resulting in minor instability. At the top end of the scale, cases may involve scarring.|
|Foot Injury||Severe||£73,620 – £176,600||Amputation of one or both feet, including traumatic amputation of the forefoot where there was a significant risk of the need for full amputation.|
|Foot Injury||Moderate||£12,050 – £61,410||Fractures of both heels with restriction on mobility, including degloving, heel fusion and deformity. At the bottom end of the scale, injuries will include metatarsal fractures, resulting in permanent deformity and continuing symptoms.|
|Foot Injury||Minor||Up to £12,050||Injuries include ruptured ligaments, puncture wounds where symptoms include a permanent limp, pain or aching, minor fractures, lacerations or contusions from which a complete recovery has been made within 2 years.|
|Toe Injury||Severe||£12,050 – £49,180||Amputation of all of your toes or your big toe. Amount depends on whether you lost your toe(s) in an incident or had them surgically removed. Severe crush injuries leading to amputation of one or two toes, but not the big toe.|
|Toe Injury||Moderate||£8,420 – £12,050||Injuries include multiple fractures or crush injury to two or more toes including the big toe. At the top end of the scale, there will be some permanent disability, and there will have been a number of unsuccessful operations.|
|Toe Injury||Minor||Up to £8,420||Injuries include one or more broken toes. Compensation amounts will depend on how quickly you recover and whether or not you will suffer long-term symptoms. Injuries at the bottom end of the scale will have resolved completely within a short space of time.|
|Post Traumatic Stress Disorder||Severe||£52,490 – £88,270||Cases will involve permanent effects which prevent the injured person from working at all, or at least from functioning at the pre-trauma level. Cases arising as a result of a traumatic event/accident.|
|Post Traumatic Stress Disorder||Moderate||£22,290 – £52,490||This category involves the same type of symptoms as the severe category, but there is a much better prognosis, with a likely recovery with professional help over a number of years.|
|Post Traumatic Stress Disorder||Minor||£3,460 – £7,170||At the top end of the scale, the injured person will have largely recovered, and any continuing effects will not be grossly disabling. At the bottom end of the scale, virtually a full recovery will be made within 2 years.|
|Scarring (not facial)||Severe||£6,870 – £19,930||A number of noticeable laceration scars or single disfiguring scars.|
|Scarring (not facial)||Moderate||Up to £7,580||At the top end of the scale, the injured person will have largely recovered, and any continuing effects will not be grossly disabling. At the bottom end of the scale, virtually a full recovery will be made within 2 years.|
|Scarring (not facial)||Minor||£2,080 – £6,870||A single noticeable scar, or several superficial scars of leg, arm or hand, with some minor cosmetic deficit.|